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1 Heat and Light - Jennifer Haigh
Auteur : Jennifer Haigh
Genre : Literary
Acclaimed New York Times bestselling author Jennifer Haigh returns to the Pennsylvania town at the center of her iconic novel Baker Towers in this ambitious, achingly human story of modern America and the conflicting forces at its heart—a bold, moving drama of hope and desperation, greed and power, big business and small-town families.

Forty years ago, Bakerton coal fueled the country. Then the mines closed, and the town wore away like a bar of soap. Now Bakerton has been granted a surprise third act: it sits squarely atop the Marcellus Shale, a massive deposit of natural gas.

To drill or not to drill? Prison guard Rich Devlin leases his mineral rights to finance his dream of farming. He doesn’t count on the truck traffic and nonstop noise, his brother’s skepticism or the paranoia of his wife, Shelby, who insists the water smells strange and is poisoning their

2 International Taxation and the Extractive Industries - Philip Daniel, Michael Keen, Artur Świstak & Victor Thuronyi
Auteur : Philip Daniel, Michael Keen, Artur Świstak & Victor Thuronyi
Genre : Business & Personal Finance
The taxation of extractive industries exploiting oil, gas, or minerals is usually treated as a sovereign, national policy and administration issue. This book offers a uniquely comprehensive overview of the theory and practice involved in designing policies on the international aspects of fiscal regimes for these industries, with a particular focus on developing and emerging economies.

International Taxation and the Extractive Industries addresses key topics that are not frequently covered in the literature, such as the geo-political implications of cross-border pipelines and the legal implications of mining contracts and regional financial obligations. The contributors, all of whom are leading researchers with experience of working with governments and companies on these issues, present an authoritative collection of chapters. The volume re

3 The Extractive Industries Sector - Håvard Halland, Martin Lokanc, Arvind Nair & Sridar Padmanabhan Kannan
Auteur : Håvard Halland, Martin Lokanc, Arvind Nair & Sridar Padmanabhan Kannan
Genre : Industries & Professions
The extractive industries (EI) sector occupies an outsize space in the economies of many developing countries. Economists, public finance professionals, and policy makers working in such countries are frequently confronted with issues that require an in-depth understanding of the sector; its economics, governance, and policy challenges; as well as the implications of natural resource wealth for fiscal and public financial management. The objective of the two-volume Essentials for Economists, Public Finance Professionals, and Policy Makers, published in the World Bank Studies series, is to provide a concise overview of the EI-related topics these professionals are likely to encounter. This first volume, The Extractive Industries Sector, provides an overview of issues central to EI economics; discusses key components of the sector’s governance, policy, and institutional frameworks; and

4 The Extractive Zone - Macarena Gomez-Barris
Auteur : Macarena Gomez-Barris
Genre : Social Science
In The Extractive Zone Macarena Gómez-Barris traces the political, aesthetic, and performative practices that emerge in opposition to the ruinous effects of extractive capital. The work of Indigenous activists, intellectuals, and artists in spaces Gómez-Barris labels extractive zones—majority indigenous regions in South America noted for their biodiversity and long history of exploitative natural resource extraction—resist and refuse the terms of racial capital and the continued legacies of colonialism. Extending decolonial theory with race, sexuality, and critical Indigenous studies, Gómez-Barris develops new vocabularies for alternative forms of social and political life. She shows how from Colombia to southern Chile artists like filmmaker Huichaqueo Perez and visual artist Carolina Caycedo formulate decolonial aesthetics. She also examines the decolonizing politics of a

5 Introduction: The Global and Local Governance of Extractive Resources. - Global Governance
Auteur : Global Governance
Genre : Politics & Current Events
The global governance of extractive resources has largely been shaped by the energy-security agenda of industrialized countries. It is patchy and does not properly address the specific concerns of producer, consumer, and transit countries. Rising demand coincides with a looming peak of oil production and climate change. This requires urgent and resolute collective action, which is hampered by a disconnect between geological and political temporality and realities. Extractive industries, investors, civil society, international organizations, and consumer countries can jointly provide significant political and market incentives to avert the resource curse in resource-rich, but weak states. This calls for an appropriate institutionalization of voluntary multistakeholder initiatives with greater engagement on the part of emerging economies. Keywords: energy security, extractive resources, mu

6 Extractive Economies and Conflicts in the Global South - Kenneth Omeje
Auteur : Kenneth Omeje
Genre : Politics & Current Events
The majority of developing countries in the Global South are evidently rich in natural resources, but paradoxically blighted by excruciating poverty and conflicts. This paradox of deprivation and war in the midst of plenteous resources has been the subject of great debate in international political economy in contemporary history. This book contributes to the debate by examining the underlying structures, actors and contexts of rentier politics and how they often produce and aggravate conflicts in the various extractive economies and regions of the Global South. The book critically explores the theories of rentier economies and natural resource conflicts, as well as the practical ramifications of rentier politics in the Global South with all their resonance for political economy and security in the Global North.
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8 Extractive Metallurgy of Titanium - Zhigang Zak Fang, Francis Froes & Ying Zhang
Auteur : Zhigang Zak Fang, Francis Froes & Ying Zhang
Genre : Engineering
Extractive Metallurgy of Titanium: Conventional and Recent Advances in Extraction and Production of Titanium Metal contains information on current and developing processes for the production of titanium. The methods for producing Ti metal are grouped into two categories, including the reduction of TiCl4 and the reduction of TiO2, with their processes classified as either electrochemical or thermochemical. Descriptions of each method or process include both the fundamental principles of the method and the engineering challenges in their practice. In addition, a review of the chemical and physical characteristics of the product produced by each method is included.

Sections cover the purity of titanium metal produced based on ASTM and other industry standards, energy consumption, cost and the potential environmental impacts of the processes.
Provides information on n

9 Extractive Metallurgy 1 - Alain Vignes
Auteur : Alain Vignes
Genre : Engineering
This book is dedicated to the processes of mineral transformation, recycling and reclamation of metals, for the purpose of turning metals and alloys into a liquid state ready for pouring.
Even though "process metallurgy" is one of the oldest technologies implemented by man, technological innovation, with the development of processes that are both focused on product quality and economically and ecologically efficient, continues to be at the heart of these industries.

This book explains the physico-chemical bases of transformations, vital to their understanding and control (optimization of operational conditions), and the foundations in terms of "process engineering" (heat and matter assessment, process coupling: chemical reactions and transport phenomena), vital to the optimal execution and analysis of transformation process operations.

This book is addressed t

10 OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Meaningful Stakeholder Engagement in the Extractive Sector - Various Authors
Auteur : Various Authors
Genre : Public Administration
Companies can contribute to positive social and economic development when they involve stakeholders, such as local communities, in their planning and decision making. This is particularly true in the extractive sector, which is associated with extensive social, economic and environmental impacts. The OECD has prepared a Due Diligence Guidance for Meaningful Stakeholder Engagement in the Extractive Sector intended to provide practical guidance to mining, oil and gas enterprises in addressing the challenges related to stakeholder engagement. This guide is part of the work the OECD undertakes to create practical sectoral applications for the recommendations found in the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Find out more about OECD work on stakeholder engagement in the extractive sector please see:

11 Extractive Metallurgy of Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals (Enhanced Edition) - Frank Crundwell, Michael Moats, Venkoba Ramachandran, Timothy Robinson & W. G. Davenport
Auteur : Frank Crundwell, Michael Moats, Venkoba Ramachandran, Timothy Robinson & W. G. Davenport
Genre : Chemistry
This book describes and explains the methods by which three related ores and recyclables are made into high purity metals and chemicals, for materials processing. It focuses on present day processes and future developments rather than historical processes.

Nickel, cobalt and platinum group metals are key elements for materials processing. They occur together in one book because they (i) map together on the periodic table (ii) occur together in many ores and (iii) are natural partners for further materials processing and materials manufacturing. They all are, for example, important catalysts – with platinum group metals being especially important for reducing car and truck emissions. Stainless steels and CoNiFe airplane engine super alloys are examples of practical usage.

The product emphasises a sequential, building-block approach to the subj

12 Extractive Metallurgy 3 - Alain Vignes
Auteur : Alain Vignes
Genre : Engineering
Extractive metallurgy is the art and science of extracting metals from their ores and refining them. The production of metals and alloys from these source materials is still one of the most important and fundamental industries in both developed and developing economies around the world. The outputs and products are essential resources for the metallic, mechanical, electromagnetic, electrical and electronics industries (silicon is treated as a metal for these purposes).
This series is devoted to the extraction of metals from ores, concentrates (enriched ores), scraps, and other sources and their refining to the state of either liquid metal before casting or to solid metals. The extraction and refining operations that are required may be carried out by various metallurgical reaction processes.

Extractive Metallurgy 1 deals with the fundamentals of thermodynamics and kineti

13 Extractive Metallurgy of Copper (Enhanced Edition) - Mark E. Schlesinger, Kathryn C. Sole & William G. Davenport
Auteur : Mark E. Schlesinger, Kathryn C. Sole & William G. Davenport
Genre : Engineering
This multi-author new edition revises and updates the classic reference by William G. Davenport et al (winner of, among other awards, the 2003 AIME Mineral Industry Educator of the Year Award "for inspiring students in the pursuit of clarity"), providing fully updated coverage of the copper production process, encompassing topics as diverse as environmental technology for wind and solar energy transmission, treatment of waste by-products, and recycling of electronic scrap for potential alternative technology implementation. The authors examine industrially grounded treatments of process fundamentals and the beneficiation of raw materials, smelting and converting, hydrometallurgical processes, and refining technology for a mine-to-market perspective - from primary and secondary raw materials extraction to shipping of rod or billet to customers. The modern coverage of the work includes bat

14 The Hydraulic Transport and Storage of Extractive Waste - Mike Cambridge
Auteur : Mike Cambridge
Genre : Civil Engineering
This book offers the guidelines on long-term confinement of fine particulate waste products in a safe and environmentally acceptable location. It seeks to present the state of the art, drawing on combined experience from within the European Union (EU), on good international practice where relevant and on lessons learnt from recent untoward incidents. These guidelines have been developed in parallel with the development of the European Standard on Earthworks (prEN 16907) and the contents have been influenced by the well-publicised need for guidance to all stakeholders on both technical and regulatory aspects of the permitting, design and construction of extractive waste facilities in Europe. The Extractive Waste Directive (EWD) imposes a duty on all operators and regulators to ensure the competent design, operation and closure of such facilities. However, though some guidance has been pub

15 Administering Fiscal Regimes for Extractive Industries: A Handbook - Jack Calder
Auteur : Jack Calder
Genre : Business & Personal Finance
IMF economists work closely with member countries on a variety of issues. Their unique perspective on country experiences and best practices on global macroeconomic issues are often shared in the form of books on diverse topics such as cross-country comparisons, capacity building, macroeconomic policy, financial integration, and globalization.

16 From Extractive to Abstractive Summarization: A Journey - Parth Mehta & Prasenjit Majumder
Auteur : Parth Mehta & Prasenjit Majumder
Genre : Computers
This book describes recent advances in text summarization, identifies remaining gaps and challenges, and proposes ways to overcome them. It begins with one of the most frequently discussed topics in text summarization –  ‘sentence extraction’ –, examines the effectiveness of current techniques in domain-specific text summarization, and proposes several improvements. In turn, the book describes the application of summarization in the legal and scientific domains, describing two new corpora that consist of more than 100 thousand court judgments and more than 20 thousand scientific articles, with the corresponding manually written summaries. The availability of these large-scale corpora opens up the possibility of using the now popular data-driven approaches based on deep learning. The book then highlights the effectiveness of neural sentence extraction approaches, which p

17 Human Rights in the Extractive Industries - Isabel Feichtner, Markus Krajewski & Ricarda Roesch
Auteur : Isabel Feichtner, Markus Krajewski & Ricarda Roesch
Genre : Law
This book addresses key challenges and conflicts arising in extractive industries (mining, oil drilling) concerning the human rights of workers, their families, local communities and other stakeholders. Further, it analyses various instruments that have sought to mitigate human rights violations by defining transparency-related obligations and participation rights. These include the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), disclosure requirements, and free, prior and informed consent (FPIC). The book critically assesses these instruments, demonstrating that, in some cases, they produce unwanted effects. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of resistance to extractive industry projects as a response to human rights violations, and discusses how transparency, participation and resistance are interconnected.

18 Extractive Contents of Two Woods and Cork of Portuguese Origin and the Interaction of These Substrates with Cement Suspensions (Technical Note) - Forest Products Journal
Auteur : Forest Products Journal
Genre : Business & Personal Finance
Abstract Data are presented on the extractive contents of blue gum, maritime pine, and cork, as an initial attempt to predict the level of compatibility of these substrates with Portland cement. In order to cover a range of polarities, several organic solvents were applied as well as water. Moreover, to simulate the chemical environment of a cement suspension, aqueous NaOH, Ca[(OH).sub.2], and the filtrate of a cement suspension were also used as extracting agents. The levels of neutral solvent extractives are discussed, but the results obtained with alkaline extracting agents suggest that, when the woods or cork are mixed with a cement suspension, cations are adsorbed onto the substrate surfaces, and are therefore, subtracted from the solution. The phenomenon is proposed as an explantion, among others, of the impairment of cement hardening when mixed with fairly compatible or incompatib

19 Sustainable Extractive Sector Management - Zik Igbadi Boniwe
Auteur : Zik Igbadi Boniwe
Genre : Science & Nature
The planet earth is fortified with abundant natural resources such as land and its contents, air with its constituent elements, and water with both living and nonliving things. These natural resources create a system of ecosystem regeneration for sustainability. Through history, humanity has depended on these natural resources for sustenance. Extractive companies involved in harnessing these natural resources for the benefit of humanity have advanced technological adeptness that has steered toward massive exploration, exploitation, processing, usage, and disposal of these resources. The associated activities of natural resources development have improved and also negatively impacted quality of life from the prehistoric age to modern industrial society. No doubt, the extractive sector has positively contributed to technological advancement and improved education, incomes, and access t

20 Extractive Metallurgy of Copper - William G. Davenport, Matthew J. King, Mark E. Schlesinger & A.K. Biswas
Auteur : William G. Davenport, Matthew J. King, Mark E. Schlesinger & A.K. Biswas
Genre : Engineering
This new edition has been extensively revised and updated since the 3rd edition published in 1994. It contains an even greater depth of industrial information, focussing on how copper metal is extracted from ore and scrap, and how this extraction could be made more efficient.

Modern high intensity smelting processes are presented in detail, specifically flash, Contop, Isasmelt, Noranda, Teniente and direct-to-blister smelting. Considerable attention is paid to the control of SO emissions and manufacture of HSO. Recent developments in electrorefining, particularly stainless steel cathode technology are examined. Leaching, solvent extraction and electrowinning are evaluated together with their impact upon optimizing mineral resource utilization. The book demonstrates how recycling of copper and copper alloy scrap is an important source of copper and copper alloys. Copper qualit

21 Extractive Industries - Tony Addison & Alan Roe
Auteur : Tony Addison & Alan Roe
Genre : Economics
This book is about the challenges and opportunities facing developing countries in using their extractive industries to achieve inclusive and sustainable development. It recognizes explicitly the greatly increased importance of mining, oil, and gas in many lower income countries.

22 Corruption in the Extractive Value Chain - Various Authors
Auteur : Various Authors
Genre : Economics
One case of transnational corruption out of five occurs in the extractive sector according to the 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report. In this area, corruption has become increasingly complex and sophisticated affecting each stage of the extractive value chain with potential huge revenue losses for the public coffers. This report is intended to help policy makers, law enforcement officials and stakeholders strengthen prevention efforts at both the public and private levels, through improved understanding and enhanced awareness of corruption risk and mechanisms. It will help better tailoring responses to evolving corruption patterns and effectively countering adaptive strategies. The report also offers options to put a cost on corruption to make it less attractive at both the public and private levels.

23 Gender-Sensitive Approaches for the Extractive Industry in Peru - Bernie Ward & John Strongman
Auteur : Bernie Ward & John Strongman
Genre : Social Science
Large amounts of ‘development assistance’ in the form of infrastructure and social programs are annually made available to communities across Peru due the presence of extractive industry companies. These investments however do not always achieve the social development impact anticipated. As one company pointed out: “our company has invested millions of dollars in social programs in our neighboring communities, however the indicators for child malnutrition and maternal health have seen no noticeable improvement”. Communities base their support or rejection for extractive industry operations by weighing up the benefits against the risks; where the risk-benefit balance sheet does not look positive, conflict is likely. Companies, and the governments who benefit from their tax revenues, therefore work hard to reduce risks and increase benefits for communities: but this report confi

24 Extractive Metallurgy 2 - Alain Vignes
Auteur : Alain Vignes
Genre : Engineering
The Extractive Metallurgy series is devoted to the extraction of metals from ores and other sources, their refining to the state of either liquid or solid metal, and the various processes needed to carry out these operations. Using the methodology of chemical reaction engineering, this second volume in the series examines on the metallurgical reaction processes used in the extraction and refining operations, covering pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, halide, and electro-metallurgical processes. It provides valuable information on the technologies and processes engineers encounter in industrial production.

25 Extractive Industries and Ape Conservation - Arcus Foundation
Auteur : Arcus Foundation
Genre : Social Science
Current dominant thinking and practice in the private and public sectors asserts that peoples' development needs are in conflict with, or mutually exclusive to, the need to conserve the biosphere on which we depend. Consequently, we are asked to either diminish development in the name of conservation or diminish conservation in the name of development. Efforts to identify complementary objectives, or mutually acceptable trade-offs and compromises indicate, however, that this does not always have to be the case. This first volume in the State of the Apes series draws attention to the evolving context within which great ape and gibbon habitats are increasingly interfacing with extractive industries. Intended for a broad range of policy makers, industry experts, decision makers, academics, researchers and NGOs, these publications aim to influence debate, practice and policy, seeking to reco

26 Power Grab - Paasha Mahdavi
Auteur : Paasha Mahdavi
Genre : Political Science
For rulers whose territories are blessed with extractive resources - such as petroleum, metals, and minerals that will power the clean energy transition - converting natural wealth into fiscal wealth is key. Squandering the opportunity to secure these revenues will guarantee short tenures, while capitalizing on windfalls and managing the resulting wealth will fortify the foundations of enduring rule. This book argues that leaders nationalize extractive resources to extend the duration of their power. By taking control of the means of production and establishing state-owned enterprises, leaders capture revenues that might otherwise flow to private firms, and use this increased capital to secure political support. Using a combination of case studies and cross-national statistical analysis with novel techniques, Mahdavi sketches the contours of a crucial political gamble: nationalize and re

27 Beyond Governments - Eddie Rich & Jonas Moberg
Auteur : Eddie Rich & Jonas Moberg
Genre : Business & Personal Finance
In a world characterized by globalization, governments increasingly find themselves unable to govern. Corruption is everywhere, natural resources are being exploited, the environment damaged, markets distorted, and the fight against poverty is often ineffective. Certain challenges cannot be addressed by governments alone. Increasingly, collective governance “beyond governments” is seen as part of the solution, with state and non-state actors working together.

This book sets out a framework for those wishing to implement collective governance, involving civil society, companies and governments as key actors. Based on over eight years of running the most advanced example of collective governance at international level, the Head and Deputy Head of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) outline the practicalities and pitfalls, and draw out

28 African Artisanal Mining from the Inside Out - Sara Geenen
Auteur : Sara Geenen
Genre : Economics
Artisanal mining is commonly associated with violent conflict, rampant corruption and desperate poverty. Yet millions of people across Sub Sahara Africa depend on it. Many of them are living in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), home to important mineral reserves, but also to a plethora of armed groups and massive human rights violations.

African Artisanal Mining from the Inside Out provides a rich and in-depth analysis of the Congolese gold sector. Instead of portraying miners and traders as passive victims of economic forces, regional conflicts or disheartening national policies, it focuses on how they gain access to and benefit from gold. It shows a professional artisanal mining sector governed by a set of specific norms, offering ample opportunities for flexible employment and local livelihood support and being well-connected to the local economy a

29 Breaking Ground - World Politics Review, Lisa Sachs, Lyuba Zarsky, Siri Aas Rustad, Päivi Lujala & Philippe Le Billon
Auteur : World Politics Review, Lisa Sachs, Lyuba Zarsky, Siri Aas Rustad, Päivi Lujala & Philippe Le Billon
Genre : Politics & Current Events
High revenues and long-term investment make extractive industries attractive partners for poor countries seeking development. But formulating a sustainable strategy remains a challenge in the best of circumstances, and can be an urgent part of solidifying peace in fragile post-conflict environments. Lisa Sachs outlines the key elements for avoiding the “resource curse.” Lyuba Zarsky highlights the importance of local communities in the search for sustainable development. And Siri Aas Rustad, Päivi Lujala and Philippe Le Billon examine the challenges of peacebuilding in resource-rich post-conflict states.

30 Still Digging - Stacy D. VanDeveer
Auteur : Stacy D. VanDeveer
Genre : Engineering
Humanity is now a geophysical force, as influential on the earth ecosystem function as other major ecosystem functions. Few things are better at illustrating the recently popularized “Anthropocene” concept than the aggregate scale and ecological implications of the extractive industries.  This analysis is organized into five sections. The first briefly discusses environmental, humanitarian, and security challenges surrounding the extractive industries and their governance. The next focuses briefly on the oil and gas sector, including illustrative boxes about Nigeria’s Niger Delta, U.S. pipeline and oil shale politics, and recent debates about what some call the global “scramble” for oil and gas. Next, the paper turns attention to mining, the less famous side of the global extractive industries sector. This section includes boxes on diamonds and the “Kimberley process”

31 Industrialising Rural India - Kenneth Bo Nielsen & Patrik Oskarsson
Auteur : Kenneth Bo Nielsen & Patrik Oskarsson
Genre : Economics
Rapid industrialisation is promoted by many as the most feasible way of rejuvenating the Indian economy, and as a way of generating employment on a large scale. At the same time, the transfer of land from rural communities and indigenous groups for industrial parks, mining, or Special Economic Zones has emerged as perhaps the most explosive issue in India over the past decade. Industrialising Rural India sheds light on crucial political and social dynamics that unfold today as India seeks to accelerate industrial growth. The volume examines key aspects that are implicated in current processes of industrialisation in rural India, including the evolution of industrial and related policies; the contested role of land transfers, dispossession, and the destruction of the natural resource base more generally; and the popular resistance against industrial projects, extractive industries

32 Extraction 2018 - Boyd R. Davis, Michael S. Moats, Shijie Wang, Dean Gregurek, Joël Kapusta, Thomas P. Battle, Mark E. Schlesinger, Gerardo Raul Alvear Flores, Evgueni Jak, Graeme Goodall, Michael L. Free, Edouard Asselin, Alexandre Chagnes, David Dreisinger, Matthew Jeffrey, Jae-heon Lee, Graeme Miller, Jochen Petersen, Virginia S. T. Ciminelli, Qian Xu, Ronald Molnar, Jeff Adams, Wenying Liu, Niels Verbaan, John Goode, Ian M. London, Gisele Azimi, Alex Forstner, Ronel Kappes & Tarun Bhambhani
Auteur : Boyd R. Davis, Michael S. Moats, Shijie Wang, Dean Gregurek, Joël Kapusta, Thomas P. Battle, Mark E. Schlesinger, Gerardo Raul Alvear Flores, Evgueni Jak, Graeme Goodall, Michael L. Free, Edouard Asselin, Alexandre Chagnes, David Dreisinger, Matthew Jeffrey, Jae-heon Lee, Graeme Miller, Jochen Petersen, Virginia S. T. Ciminelli, Qian Xu, Ronald Molnar, Jeff Adams, Wenying Liu, Niels Verbaan, John Goode, Ian M. London, Gisele Azimi, Alex Forstner, Ronel Kappes & Tarun Bhambhani
Genre : Engineering
This three volume set presents papers from the first collaborative global metallurgy conference focused exclusively on extractive topics, including business and economic issues. Contributions examine new developments in foundational extractive metallurgy topics and techniques, and present the latest research and insights on emerging technologies and issues that are shaping the global extractive metallurgy industry. The book is organized around the following main themes: hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, sulfide flotation, and extractive metallurgy markets and economics.

33 Continental Impoverishment - Stephen H. Gobewole
Auteur : Stephen H. Gobewole
Genre : Public Administration
Africa is a continent of contrasts, with some of the lowest literacy rates and nations with the highest number of people living in poverty. Yet beginning a few hundred years ago, this same continent was rich in resources coveted by more advanced nations, today’s wealthy Western and European countries. African minerals, raw materials, and even humans were traded for cash or services that benefited African leaders, families, or tribes, but this wealth was not distributed across the general population. The combination of resource extraction, neoliberal policies, and patrimonial regimes is the foundation for the abject poverty and poor literacy that exists in many African nations today.
This book uses data provided by highly regarded international organizations, such as the Index of Economic Freedom, The Global Innovation Index, The Intelligence Unit Democracy Index, and Corruption P

34 Mountain Movers - Daniel M. Franks
Auteur : Daniel M. Franks
Genre : Business & Personal Finance
The products of mining are everywhere – if it wasn’t grown, it was mined or drilled. But the mining industry has a chequered past. Pollution, human rights abuses, and corruption have tarnished the reputation of the industry across the globe. Over a decade ago the major mining companies embraced the concept of sustainable and equitable development and embarked on an explicit process of reform – but has the industry actually changed? 
This book explores the dynamics of change-making for sustainable development in the resources sector, specifically the mining of mineral and energy resources. The author recounts the stories and insights of over forty change-makers both inside and outside the industry, from anti-mining activists to the professionals charged with the task of reform, introducing the people who are moving an industry that moves mountains. The book takes stock o

35 Profits, Security, and Human Rights in Developing Countries - James Rochlin
Auteur : James Rochlin
Genre : Politics & Current Events
The extractive sector is a particular area of expertise for Canada and more than half of Canada’s mining assets abroad are located in Latin America, specifically in Brazil, Peru, Chile, and Colombia. The Canada-Colombia accord was the first free-trade agreement in the world to include annual Human Rights Impact Assessments (HRIA), and also includes a labour side accord where abuse complaints can be formally registered. Using Colombia as a case study, James Rochlin and his international and multidisciplinary line up of Canadian and Colombian scholars, and activists working in the area of human rights, and the judiciary explore:
What is the best way to identify and operationalize for mutual benefit the concentric space between the interests of extractive corporations in profit and security, on the one hand, and the interests of the host communities in the promotion of human right

36 Human Rights Trade-Offs in Times of Economic Growth - Areli Valencia
Auteur : Areli Valencia
Genre : World Affairs
This book uncovers a historical dependency on smelting activities that has trapped inhabitants of La Oroya, Peru, in a context of systemic lack of freedom. La Oroya has been named one of the most polluted places on the planet by the US Blacksmith Institute. Residents face the dilemma of whether to defend their health or to preserve job stability at the local smelter, the main source of toxic pollution in town. Valencia unpacks this paradoxical human rights trade-off. This context, shaped by social, historical, political, and economic factors, increases people’s vulnerabilities and decreases their ability to choose, resulting in residents' trading off their right to health in order to work. This book shows the deep connection of this local dilemma to the country’s national paradox, arising out of Peru's vision of natural resource extraction as the main path to secure economic growth f

37 Resource Booms and Institutional Pathways - Eduardo Dargent, José Carlos Orihuela, Maritza Paredes & María Eugenia Ulfe
Auteur : Eduardo Dargent, José Carlos Orihuela, Maritza Paredes & María Eugenia Ulfe
Genre : World Affairs
This book analyses institutional development that the Peruvian state has undergone in recent years within a context of rapid extractive industry expansion. It addresses the most important institutional state transformations produced directly by natural resources growth. This includes the construction of a redistributive law with the mining canon; the creation of a research canon for public universities; the development of new institutions for environmental regulation; the legitimation of state involvement in the function of prevention and management of conflicts; and the institutionalization and dissemination of practices of participation and local consultation.

38 Global Norm Compliance - Aliya Tskhay
Auteur : Aliya Tskhay
Genre : Foreign Policy & International Relations
This book examines the implementation of, the spread of, and compliance with emerging global norms. Based on empirical country studies on the implementation of transparency norms defined by the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) – a multi-stakeholder process seeking to promote global standards for the transparent and accountable management of oil, gas and mineral resources –, it investigates the various factors and motivations affecting actors with regard to norm compliance. The book demonstrates that compliance with global norms depends on a combination of various factors, including motivations and conditions for introducing norms into the domestic political space; local actors’ level of commitment to the norm; and their capacity for norm compliance. Given its scope, the book will appeal to all international relations scholars interested in processes of norm loca

39 Mining Encounters - Robert Jan Pijpers & Thomas Hylland Eriksen
Auteur : Robert Jan Pijpers & Thomas Hylland Eriksen
Genre : Anthropology
In a fast-changing world, where the extraction of natural resources is key to development, whilst also creating environmental and social disasters, understanding how landscapes, people and politics are shaped by extraction is crucial.

Looking at resource extraction in numerous locations at different stages of development, including North, West and South Africa, India, Kazakhstan and Australia, a broad picture is created, covering coal, natural-gas, gold and cement mining, from corporate to 'artisanal' extraction, from the large to the small scale. The chapters answer the questions: What is ideological about resource extraction? How does extraction transform the physical landscape? And how does the extractive process determine which stakeholders become dominant or marginalised?

Contributing to policy debates, Mining Encounters uncovers the tensions, negotiations an

40 Negotiations in the Indigenous World - Ciaran O'Faircheallaigh
Auteur : Ciaran O'Faircheallaigh
Genre : Politics & Current Events
Negotiated agreements play a critical role in setting the conditions under which resource development occurs on Indigenous land. Our understanding of what determines the outcomes of negotiations between Indigenous peoples and commercial interests is very limited.

With over two decades experience with Indigenous organisations and communities, Ciaran O’Faircheallaigh's book offers the first systematic analysis of agreement outcomes and the factors that shape them, based on evaluative criteria developed especially for this study; on an analysis of 45 negotiations between Aboriginal peoples and mining companies across all of Australia’s major resource-producing regions; and on detailed case studies of four negotiations in Australia and Canada.
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